October 21, 2020

Inside & Out: 1830s Striped Dress

Before dust starts collecting on this dress hung in the back of the costume closet, I thought I'd feature it one last time on the blog.  This inside & out post completes the series on the red striped dress, detailing its construction and all of the fun, self-fabric trimmings.  The completed project appears in two previous posts, including the official photoshoot: Wake the Heart & Stir the Soul - 1830s Photoshoot, and was worn for the Historical Fashion Program: 1830s Get Ready With Me + 4 Antique Pelerines.  

Inside & Out: 1830s Striped Dress Construction
Here are the completed bodice and skirt ready to be attached!


Historical Inspiration

When designing my historical costumes, I first look to period sources, including fashion plates, paintings (and photographs when they become available), and extant examples from museum collections.  The main inspiration for my 1830s striped dress was this favorite from the Snowshill Wade Costume Collection, via the National Trust.  I've always admired the use of the roller print and playing with the direction of the stripes, as some are on the bias and others on the straight of grain.  

Dress, c.1825-30
Snowshill Wade Costume Collection
Source: National Trust Collections (NT 1349130)

Here's another example of bias cut trim on the skirt from a November 1827 issue of Ackermann's Repository (Series no. 3, volume 10):

Morning Dress from Ackermann's Repository, November 1827.
(Source: "Regency Era Fashions," EKDuncan and My Fanciful Muse)

Rather than gathering the front of the bodice, I wanted to make use of the bias again and create this period chevron effect.  Here's an example from the Susan Greene Collection that I liked, notice how strategically changing the direction of the stripes on the belt creates a lovely, decorative effect.

Dress with gigot sleeves, c.1825-1830.
Susan Greene Costume Collection.
(Source: image via pinterest)


Construction Details

The journey from design and sourcing the fabric to making and finally finishing the dress was a long, complicated one.  In fact, it languished incomplete in the stash for so long, that the initial bodice no longer fit, and required the assistance of my very talented, seamstress friend, Kaela, to refit the shoulders and back.  (My guess is that my original pattern did not account for the weight and pull of the sleeves, so the next time I make an 1830s dress, I definitely won't skip the mockup with a sleeve over the proper supports.)  Anyways, fitting issues aside, the dress was eventually completed, and I'm really happy with some of the construction techniques and design details that I'll highlight below:

First, a look at the front of the bodice from the outside.  The front features the period bateau or boat neckline often seen in daywear, and is finished with a narrow, piped facing.  The "chevron" effect is created by cutting each side on the bias and joining them at the center with piping at the seam (piping serves both a decorative and functional purpose by ensuring the sides won't stretch and stabilizing the seam).  Two darts on each side provide fitting, and the waistline is finished with a band cut on the straight of grain.  

Front view of the bodice from the outside.

Here's a close up of the center front, notice how the darts distort the print further creating an illusion of a smaller waist.  I love the play between the directions on the bodice, waistband, and skirt! 

The chevron effect is created by cutting two, front sides on the bias and joining them at the center front.
Even the piping in the seam is pattern matched - it's the little details that make me happy!

And the same view, from the inside showing the center seam, darts, and finishing with both a piped facing at the neckline and folded waistband.  Neat and tidy interiors also make me happy! 

Detail of the front bodice from the inside.

The dress closes in the back with each side constructed in the same way - two pieces with a curved seam and turned under facing.  It's attached to the front at the shoulder, with piping at both seams and armscyes for added stability.  Seven metal hooks - five down the back and two on the waistband - with corresponding thread eyes were used for closures. 

Back view of the bodice from the outside.

Back view of the bodice from the inside.
Seven metal hooks and thread eyes serve as closures.

Detail of the piping in the shoulder seam, armscye, center front seam, and neckline facing. 

If I haven't already mentioned it, I like neatly finished interiors.  Modern garments tend to use a technique called "bag lining," where the fashion fabric and lining are assembled individually and then stitched together afterwards.  Period garments, however, tend to be flat lined - that is treating the fashion fabric and lining as one.  (Here my fashion fabric is the red stripe, and the lining is cotton muslin).  I prefer flat lining (because it's faster!), and if the raw edges start to ravel, they can be overcast by hand, pinked, or even overlocked using a modern serger.  

Another detail worth mentioning is how the sleeve supports are attached.  As seen in period examples, mine are simply tied in place at the armsyces using cotton tapes.  This makes them somewhat adjustable as they can be raised or lowered to sit correctly off the shoulder.  It's also a convenient solution for storage and reuse with other dresses! 

Interior view of the bodice.
Cotton tape ties hold the sleeve supports in place.

Once the bodice was assembled, it was time to shift the focus onto the sleeves!  The side seams were finished with piping, and the wrists with a narrow piped facing.  Basically, in the 1830s, if there was seam, they piped it!  I also echoed the trim of the skirt, applying both a bias cut and horizontal band at the wrists.  Unfortunately, I think these details tend to get lost in the business of the print when worn...but here's a picture to prove they're there:

Detail of the sleeve hems - notice the piping along the side seams, piped wrist facings,
and both bias cut and horizontal bands of trim.

Moving along to the skirt, after some debate, I ended up pleating the front panels into large, double-stacked box pleats (which were not fun to stitch through), and gauging the back panels.  I really liked the effect this had, both in playing with the print at the front, and they way it distributed all of the fullness.  The skirt is balanced so that the back is longer than the front (for an even hem over the skirt supports and petticoats), and is finished with a contrasting hem facing.  

Skirt detail featuring double-stacked box pleats in the front and gauging in the back.
Tiny whip stitches secure the skirt to the bodice waistband.

Making skirt trim!  To save time, I did use a machine to construct the trim, stacking bands of bias-cut strips to those following the horizontal stripe, which were cut on the grain.  Once these were assembled and pressed, I used a machine to stitch the upper edge to the skirt hem following my 1/2" allowance as marked in pencil.  The trim was then pressed down and top stitched by hand using tiny running stitches.  Of course, in the period, every stitch would have been done by hand; however, in my historical garments, I use a combination of machine and hand stitching.  Any and all stitching that might be visible from the outside (as well as techniques that are just not possible by machine like gauging and attaching a skirt) are done by hand.  Though, I will use a machine for convenience and time saving on interior seams or, again, details that won't be visible from the outside. 

Assembling the skirt trim.

Attaching the top edge of the trim by machine to save time.
The lower edge was pressed under a 1/2" and top stitched by hand using tiny running stitches.
When constructing my personal historical costumes, I do use a combination of machine and hand stitching -
it's just faster for me to machine interior seams, though any and all stitching
that could be visible on the outside is done exclusively by hand.

The finished skirt trim.

Contrasting hem facing.

And I think that's it as far as construction notes - if I missed anything or if you have questions, feel free to write them in the comments below!


Since this is an inside & out post, I'll include a picture of the new chemise & drawers set I made specifically for the second wearing, which was for that historical get-ready-with-me program.  I won't go into the details of all of the layers (as there's a whole video on getting dressed in the 1830s in the last post), but for my own sewing documentation purposes, these were the new pieces:

In the true spirit of inside & out...
New chemise & drawers + my favorite boots!


Completed Project Pictures

Here's a look at the finished striped dress worn over the proper undergarments.  I think it's pretty even without all of the extra accessories.  The self-fabric trim and directional print seems to provide enough contrast to keep visual interest.  Though, if you're interested in seeing the entire outfit with all of the finishing touches, do check out the official photoshoot: Wake the Heart & Stir the Soul - 1830s Photoshoot, and the Historical Fashion Program: 1830s Get Ready With Me posts. 



Fully accessorized & seated in the front parlor at the Foster-Tufts House: 


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October 18, 2020

Historical Fashion Program: 1830s Get Ready With Me + 4 Antique Pelerines

In today's post, I'll be revisiting a past fashion program that I collaborated on with Brandon Brooks, curator at the John L. Wehle Gallery, as well as sharing pictures of four antique pelerines from the early-mid 19th century.  The first pelerine was featured in the "Get Ready With Me" program and is from the Susan Greene Costume Collection.  The other three are from Point Park University's Costume Collection.  All together, I thought the costume program and extant garments would make for a great pairing and interesting blog post - hope you enjoy! 

It's no secret that I love historical fashion - the researching, recreating, and wearing of past clothing - and I jump at any chance to share this passion with the public.  In the last five years, I've come to develop an array of historical fashion programs for all ages - from a "fashion fun" summer camp, to themed public talks, a walking tour, and even a fashion show.  (If you're interested in reading more about some of those, check out these previous posts: Presenting on Fashion: "The Underwear Under There" and Fashion Show at the Bement-Billings Farmstead Museum).  

I'm building quite the library of notes from these, and I have so many ideas for other presentations!  It's my dream to continue in this style of education and outreach, and expand upon these offerings.  I see historical fashion and similar "dressing a lady" programs appealing to public schools, historic houses and societies, living history museums, libraries, and other community centers looking for an educational, yet entertaining and interactive presentation.  I have the passion, and now the wardrobe, so I just need to find an audience and outlet...(So if you're looking, or know of a group that would be interested, feel free to email me at anneliesemeck@gmail.com ;)  I also plan on getting my professional website up and running soon, so be on the look out for that too.)

Anyways, back to our current presentation topic:

Part I - Historical Fashion Program: Getting Dressed in the 1830s 

The historical "Get Ready With Me" was just a whole lot of fun!  I was invited by Brandon, now curator at the John L. Wehle Gallery, to collaborate again on one of his 2019 Summer Gatherings.  After hearing the idea, it was, of course, an immediate and enthusiastic "yes!" from me.  

Table display for the "Getting Dressed in the 1830s" Program,
featuring extant garments from the Susan Greene Costume Collection.

Since I had some time, I was able to put together a few things, including making a new chemise and set of hair ringlets for the presentation.  Brandon pulled together an amazing display table of extant examples from the Susan Greene Costume Collection (pictured above), including all of the undergarments, dresses, outerwear, and accessories that a fashionable lady of the 1830s would have worn.  These items were presented alongside the "get ready with me," which was literally me getting dressed in my reproduction clothing.  

Detail of some of the items on the display table -
including (left to right) an 1830s sleeve plumper, slippers, reticules, false ringlets and cap.

I thought this was a great format, showing both layer by layer what would have been worn (and is still by the historical interpreters in the village) along with original examples from the period.  Visitors often ask what's under the costumes, or simply see items mounted in display cases - and this provided an opportunity to go beyond the glass barriers, and get up close and personal with fashion history.  And I think both our morning and afternoon audiences appreciated what they saw.  

Making the costume collection more accessible, relatable, and enjoyable for the public are really central to Brandon's programs and vision.  He's an incredibly knowledgeable and passionate curator, and it's always a great privilege and pleasure to get to work with him.  (He also has an Instagram account @l_aspect_ancien, where he posts daily images from the costume collection, as well as exhibit related and other, personal sewing projects - so go follow him there!)


The afternoon session was live streamed on the Genesee Country Village & Museum Facebook Page, and is still accessible there, if you're interested in viewing the presentation.  I'll also embed the video below, so you can also watch it here:


Towards the end of the video, Brandon briefly and very carefully draped a gorgeous, antique pelerine with whitework embroidery over my shoulders.  The result was perfectly period - though the original wearer and I had different measurements, the pelerine visually broadened my shoulders and back, really emphasizing the fashionable silhouette.  (And making me want a pretty pelerine of my own!)

The following pictures were taken by Brandon and shared via Instagram @l_aspect_ancien.  The illusion is most noticeable in the back view:




Part II - Extant Garments: Antique Pelerines

Since I was already going to feature the one pelerine (above), I thought it would appropriate to include a few more, similar accessories.  Note: the following images of extant pelerines may be shared and saved for educational and person reference, only, and must include the appropriate credit to either the "Susan Greene Costume Collection" or the "Point Park University Costume Collection" as noted.  [Click on the images to enlarge]


Pelerine 1:  Fine cotton pelerine with whitework embroidery, c.1820s-30s, from the Susan Greene Costume Collection.

Between the morning and afternoon presentations, I was given permission to the study this pelerine.  While I was photographing, I also took detailed measurements and traced a paper pattern for the upper and lower collars and lappets (which is currently in a different state right now, otherwise I'd include that in this post).  I hope to someday reproduce it, though I'm not sure about all of that hand embroidery! 

Cotton pelerine with whitework embroidery, c.1820s-30s.
Susan Greene Costume Collection.

Detail of the embroidery on the upper collar.

Detail of the embroidery on the lower cape.
(Image by Brandon, via Instagram @l_aspect_ancien)


The next three extant examples are from the Point Park University Collection.  When I was a student there, I was given permission to study and photograph pieces from the university's collection, (more details here: project background). 

Pelerine 2:  Square collar of cotton with whitework embroidery, c.1820s-30s.  Like the first example, this features wide upper and lower collars with a small, floral motif and scalloped edges. 

Cotton collar with whitework embroidery, c.1820s-30s.
Point Park University Costume Collection.


Detail of the whitework embroidery.


Pelerine 3:  Embroidered net pelerine, c.1820s-40s.  Notice again the double collars and lappets, leaf-shaped motifs around the boarders, and scalloped edges.  

Embroidered net pelerine, c.1820s-40s.
Point Park University Costume Collection.


Detail of the embroidery.


Pelerine 4:  Pelerine or fichu, dotted swiss cotton with lace frill, early-mid 19th century.  

This accessory would have served a similar, decorative and functional purpose, though it is cut in a slightly later style than those above.  The center front and back both measure 21.5" from the neck to end point, and the edges are finished with a 1" hem.  There is quite a bit of piecing of the dotted swiss cotton, and the lace measures 2" wide.  

Pelerine or fichu of dotted swiss cotton with lace trim, early-mid 19th century.
Point Park University Costume Collection.

Detail of the piecing at the shoulder.

Detail of the lace trim.


And that's it for today's post!  I also have a page for Extant Garments if you're interested in more posts featuring items from the Point Park University Costume Collection.  

Like what you see here and want to support the creation of future content and fashion history programming?  Consider joining us over on Patreon, and you'll also unlock exclusive contents like bonus blog posts, live chats, and more!  Follow @youngsewphisticate on Facebook & Instagram.

As always, thank you for reading & special thanks to our generous patrons!

September 24, 2020

Culture Not Costume: A Practical Guide to Avoiding Cultural Appropriation

The online costuming conference last weekend, Costume On 2: Tailored, was a great success, and to all of those who attended my lectures - thank you!  I learned just as much about presenting as I hope participants did from the talks, and I look forward to future opportunities to share that research again!  

Before I file my notes away, I did want to share what ended up being part of the conclusion of my second session, which discussed Orientalism in all of its complexities - including both historical and modern applications to fashion, textiles, and accessories.  The last few slides focused on defining appreciation and appropriation, and I offered some guidelines or advice for applying culturally sensitive practices to our modern, historical costuming.  However, I don't feel that one slide at the end really gave enough attention to this important topic, so I thought I'd follow up today with a blog post.  This is intended as a practical guide for avoiding cultural appropriation in costuming, and while it's by no means all-inclusive, it offers a start.  So, without further ado, let's dive in:


First, let's discuss: what is appropriation?  The online Oxford English dictionary provides the following definition, stating that appropriation is the "action of taking something for one's own use, typically without the owner's permission."  So when applied to culture, it is the intentional (or sometimes unintentional) copying of another culture's intellectual or material property.  This includes, but is not limited to a culture's specific customs, traditions, or forms of expression, be it through music and dance, language, food, and, of course, clothing.  Appropriation differs from "cultural borrowing" in that it is done without the permission of that culture, and often without respect or understanding for the significance of what is being taken.  This is especially harmful when the community that is the source is a minority group that has been oppressed or exploited by the more dominant society, who profits either politically, economically, or socially from the taking.  

So when avoiding appropriation in own costuming, as a community, we must be more aware when we culturally-cross dress.  Cultural awareness goes beyond simply avoiding using sacred or highly specific, traditional motifs, as we must consider the interests of the culture whose clothing or materials or being used.  These actions fall under what is described as cultural appreciation.  Cultural appreciation is characterized by having a genuine and authentic interest in another culture - by listening to the native perspective, learning about their history, and then understanding the significance of the object within its original context.  Unlike appropriation, appreciation is an active exchange that is mutually beneficial, whether that includes a monetary exchange or just a better understanding on both sides.  

I LOVE this illustration - culture is NOT a costume! 
(Image source: The Odyssey)

Cultural borrowing in itself is not problematic, in fact, it's a wonderful, beautiful thing!  We just need to keep the impact of our actions in mind as we make these transactions.  This requires taking a moment to reflect on the intention - why we are borrowing and for what purpose - and making sure that the end result honors the culture, its people, and their objects in the context they were intended to be used and appreciated.  So, how do we do this - or what are some immediate, practical tips for avoiding cultural appropriation?  These, of course, are going to differ person to person, and situation to situation, but here is my advice and where I would start:


Step number one: show genuine interest in the culture as a whole.  

Intention is everything.  Consider your motivations before borrowing - is this for attention or superficial reasons (ex: "likes" on an Instagram photo or just because it looks "cool" or "exotic")?  Or is there a deeper, authentic interest in participating in another culture's traditions?

Simply being friends with someone from another culture or just enjoying the look of something different from your norm, doesn't give you permission to tokenize or appropriate.  If you truly want to partake in another culture's dress, don't cherry-pick elements or modify tradition to suit an arbitrary aesthetic, but rather be interested in and celebrate the culture as a whole.  



Step number two: do your research! 

When planning a costume, there's a lot of effort that goes into developing the character, designing the outfit, and sourcing all of the materials - and that's all before the actual making process!  So when designing a costume with cross-cultural elements, it's equally, if not more important to do your research!  This is not just a superficial google search, but really do a deep dive so you have a full understanding of the cultural and historical significance of an object or material you wish to use - as well as the appropriate context for its use.  

Make sure to give the appropriate credit too.  This includes disclosing and discussing your sources for inspiration, both the historical and the cultural.  Costumers often provide a character reference when cosplaying, or the fashion plate or extant garment that inspired their historical dress - make sure to do the same when there's cultural background required. 



Step number three: be an empathetic listener.  

Consider the sources of your research - did you directly consult with people from the culture to learn about their feelings and perspectives on the object you wish to use?  Cultural exchange is a two way street, and borrowing quickly becomes appropriation, exploitation, and oppression when the wishes of the source culture are excluded from conversation, and worse ignored or directly violated.  Have an open and honest conversation with willing participants.  And if you are the borrower, be an active listener and engaged learner, not a dismissive informer.  

Also, support native artisans and makers whenever possible.  The expression money talks applies here - for instance, instead of buying "tribal-inspired" earrings from just anyone, amplify the voices of Native American and indigenous peoples by recognizing their unique, cultural identities and purchasing directly from a Navajo artist.  The result is two-fold - you're supporting a rich, crafting tradition that's been exploited by the "fashion" industry, and you're connecting with a culture, rather than a faceless corporation making a profit off of mass-produced rip-offs.  



Step number four: make conscious and intentional decisions. 

You've done your research, you've consulted with people from the culture, and now it's time to apply your findings.  Be deliberate in your choices, think about the message your costume is sending - are you honoring a culture or simply imitating it?  

Obviously, avoid perpetuating the stereotypes of a culture.  Make sure, again, you are borrowing for the right reasons.  None of which should be to make money or just for a "cool" photo to post online - but as an opportunity to learn about, interact with, and ultimately experience another culture.  



Step number five: err on the side of caution.  

There is a thin line between appreciation and appropriation, but sometimes there's grey area or matters that will differ within personal or cultural interpretations.  We have to be comfortable with the uncomfortable, and realize that there may not be a definitive answer.  Above all, use your common sense.  If you're question whether something is more appropriative than appreciative, it's best to err on the side of caution.  And if your gut feeling is ever "no," just don't do it! 



Step number six: be willing to acknowledge & learn from mistakes.

All actions have consequences, for better or for worse.  The boundaries of culture are neither definite, nor static, rather they are fluid, dynamic, and constantly being redefined.  Even when acting with the best of intentions, appropriation still happens - and the harm is real.  We will all make mistakes, and it's important to give yourself permission to be human and a little grace. 

The best response is a sincere apology.  Acknowledge what went wrong, and don't continue to insist that you were appreciating if you've been told you're actually appropriating.  Perhaps review steps one through three of this guide - and, most importantly, learn from the mistake so it doesn't happen again.  


And with that, I think I’ll open it up to any questions and further discussion!  How do you practice cultural appreciation, and what steps do you take to avoid appropriation in your own costuming?  Which of the steps in this guide stood out to you most, and what advice would you add?  

Let me know in the comments below - thanks for reading, and special thanks to our patrons who make content like this possible! 

September 8, 2020

Online Conference - Costume On 2: Tailored

It is with the greatest pleasure that I can now announce I will be speaking at Costume On 2: Tailored, an online conference for historical costuming! 

For more information, please visit their website: 1886location.com
Also find the Facebook page: Costume On

Costume On was created with the quarantine in mind, connecting costumers from all over the world for a weekend of online seminars and workshops.  With topics spanning fashion history and techniques from the 17th through the 20th centuries (and beyond), there is sure to be a class for everyone.  Following the success of their first conference, which was held back in the Spring, this upcoming, Fall conference - Costume On 2: Tailored - is scheduled for Saturday, September 19th and Sunday the 20th, 2020.  

As the name suggests, the theme of this second Costume On conference is "Tailored," with an emphasis on historical menswear and tailoring.  Conquer fitting, patterning, and drafting techniques, create period gifts for the men (or women) in your circles, and learn about the lives of every-day and extraordinary men who shaped history - all from the comforts of your own home!  Classes are all taught live, and sign up is √† la carte.  You choose which lectures and workshops you'd like to attend, and pay the teacher per session.  Whether you take one class, two, or more - as the website reads, you're attendance directly supports independent artists!

There's an incredible variety of offerings, so please see the website for the full listing and schedule for classes, here: Costume On 2: Tailored - List of Classes.  Some sessions run concurrently, so keep that in mind as you register.

Here's a snap shot of the list from their website:

Register for classes, here: Costume On 2: Tailored - List of Classes


And, as I announced above, I will be teaching two classes!  I'm so excited to be making my debut into public speaking, and thank the Costume On organizers for the opportunity to present on the following topics related to menswear:

If the Coat Fits: Chinese Soldiers in the American Civil War

Session time: Saturday, September 19, 2020 at 11am EST.

This presentation has been several years in the making, and I'm thrilled to have the chance to combine new research on the early Chinese-American experience with updated information on Civil War participation.  Since writing a guest blog post and article on the topic for the Genesee Country Village & Museum in 2017, interest in the topic has only grown.  Researchers in the field have continued making new discoveries, fueling my own desires to tell the untold stories, and in doing so, honoring my Chinese and American heritages. 

At this Costume On 2, you'll have the chance to hear this unique narrative, some for the very first time, and to reflect on the stories within your own history and experience that deserve to be remembered.


Class Description:  

If the coat fits, wear it – and the Chinese men who volunteered to serve in the Civil War did, fighting for a country that would later discriminate, exploit, exclude, and all but forget their remarkable contributions to the culture and creation of the United States.  This presentation explores the Chinese-American experience, and tells the stories of individuals from both sides of the war, on land and at sea.

Period attitudes and depictions will be referenced, and may contrast with the successful people they were then, and continue to be today.  The goal is two-fold: to highlight an untold history, and to inspire participants to draw from personal experience and other, unique perspectives when developing costumed impressions for historical reenactments and events.

This is a 90-minute lecture with a shared slide presentation.  Time will be set aside for further questions and discussion at the end.  Registration remains OPEN until September 18, 2020.


Orientalism: Western Taste for Eastern Fashion

Session time: Sunday, September 20, 2020 at 6pm EST.

Born of an interest in Chinoiserie and love of complicated dramas - in this case, the complexities of cultural exchange in fashion and decorative arts, entwined with centuries of imperialism, politics, economics, and copy-cats - this talk presents my latest research horizons.  "Orientalism" is only an introduction to the topic, offering an in-depth overview of the centuries of assimilation and appropriation through which menswear, as we in the Western world are familiar, originated:


Class Description: 

From Indian chintz prints and banyans, to Chinese silks and bris√© fans, and Turkish smoking jackets complete with tasseled caps, the fashions of the East have enchanted the West for centuries.  This presentation chronicles the complex, cross-cultural borrowing and imitation that is “Orientalism,” with an emphasis on the textiles, garments, and accessories that have shaped menswear from the late-16th through 19th centuries.

Select examples of historic portraiture, fashion plates, and extant garments from museum collections will accompany the discussion, and help the modern costumer navigate the divide between cultural appreciation and appropriation.

This is a 90-minute lecture with a shared slide presentation and time set aside for further questions and discussion at the end.  Registration will remain OPEN until September 19, 2020.  


Did something catch your eye?  I sure hope you'll consider signing up for a class or two during Costume On 2: Tailored!  With such a variety of offerings - live lectures, hands-on workshops, and behind-the-scenes tours of museums - there's something for everyone!

Alright, it's back to research for me...see you in two weeks! 

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